There were two things that I would like to post here today. The first is something I have been mulling over for a while. The second is something that I thought about more recently.

Time evolution in nonrelativistic quantum mechanics occurs according to the [time-dependent] Schrödinger equation \[ H|\Psi\rangle = i\hbar \frac{\partial}{\partial t} |\Psi\rangle .\] While this at first may seem intractable, the trick is that typically the Hamiltonian is not time-dependent, so a candidate solution could be $|\Psi\rangle = \phi(t)|E\rangle$. Plugging this back in yields time evolution that occurs through the phase $\phi(t) = e^{-\frac{iEt}{\hbar}}$ applied to energy eigenstates that solve \[ H|E\rangle = E \cdot |E\rangle \] and this equation is often called the "time-independent Schrödinger equation". When I was taking 8.04 — Quantum Physics I, I agreed with my professor who called this a misnomer, in that the Schrödinger equation is supposed to only describe time evolution, so what is being called "time-independent" is more properly just an energy eigenvalue equation. That said, I was thinking that the "time-independent Schrödinger equation" is really just like a Fourier transform of the Schrödinger equation from time to frequency (related to energy by $E = \hbar\omega$), so the former could be an OK nomenclature because it is just a change of basis. However, there are two things to note: the Schrödinger equation is basis-independent, whereas the "time-independent Schrödinger equation" is expressed only in the basis of energy eigenstates, and time is not an observable quantity (i.e. Hermitian operator) but is a parameter, so the change of basis/Fourier transform argument doesn't work in quite the same way that it does for position versus momentum. Hence, I've come to the conclusion that it is better to call the "time-independent Schrödinger equation" as the energy eigenvalue equation.

Switching gears, I was thinking about how the Biot-Savart law is derived. My AP Physics C teacher told me that the Ampère law is derived from the Biot-Savart law. However, this is patently not true, because the Biot-Savart law only works for charges moving at a constant velocity, whereas the Ampère law is true for magnetic fields created by any currents or any changing electric fields. In 8.022 — Physics II, I did see a derivation of the Biot-Savart law from the Ampère law, showing that the latter is indeed more fundamental than the former, but it involved the magnetic potential and a lot more work. I wanted to see if that derivation still made sense to me, but then I realized that because magnetism essentially springs from the combination of electricity and special relativity and because the Biot-Savart law relies on the approximation of the charges moving at a constant velocity, it should be possible to derive the Biot-Savart law from the Coulomb law and special relativity. Indeed, it is possible. Consider a charge $q$ whose electric field is \[ \vec{E} = \frac{q}{r^2} \vec{e}_r \] in its rest frame. Note that the Coulomb law is exact in the rest frame of a charge. Now consider a frame moving with respect to the charge at a velocity $-\vec{v}$, so that observers in the frame see the charge move at a velocity $\vec{v}$. Considering only the component of the magnetic field perpendicular to the relative motion, noting that there is no magnetic field in the rest frame of the charge yields, and considering the low-speed limit (which is the range of validity of the Biot-Savart law) $\left|\frac{\vec{v}}{c}\right| \ll 1$ so that $\gamma \approx 1$ yields $\vec{B} \approx -\frac{\vec{v}}{c} \times \vec{E}$. Plugging in $-\vec{v}$ (the specified velocity of the new frame relative to the charge) for $\vec{v}$ (the general expression for the relative velocity) and plugging in the Coulomb expression for $\vec{E}$ yields the Biot-Savart law \[ \vec{B} = \frac{q\vec{v} \times \vec{e}_r}{cr^2}. \] One thing to be emphasized again is that the Coulomb law is exact in the rest frame of the charge, while the Biot-Savart law is always an approximation because a moving charge will have an electric field that deviates from the Coulomb expression; the fact that the Biot-Savart law is a low-speed inertial approximation is why I feel comfortable doing the derivation this way.

Time evolution in nonrelativistic quantum mechanics occurs according to the [time-dependent] Schrödinger equation \[ H|\Psi\rangle = i\hbar \frac{\partial}{\partial t} |\Psi\rangle .\] While this at first may seem intractable, the trick is that typically the Hamiltonian is not time-dependent, so a candidate solution could be $|\Psi\rangle = \phi(t)|E\rangle$. Plugging this back in yields time evolution that occurs through the phase $\phi(t) = e^{-\frac{iEt}{\hbar}}$ applied to energy eigenstates that solve \[ H|E\rangle = E \cdot |E\rangle \] and this equation is often called the "time-independent Schrödinger equation". When I was taking 8.04 — Quantum Physics I, I agreed with my professor who called this a misnomer, in that the Schrödinger equation is supposed to only describe time evolution, so what is being called "time-independent" is more properly just an energy eigenvalue equation. That said, I was thinking that the "time-independent Schrödinger equation" is really just like a Fourier transform of the Schrödinger equation from time to frequency (related to energy by $E = \hbar\omega$), so the former could be an OK nomenclature because it is just a change of basis. However, there are two things to note: the Schrödinger equation is basis-independent, whereas the "time-independent Schrödinger equation" is expressed only in the basis of energy eigenstates, and time is not an observable quantity (i.e. Hermitian operator) but is a parameter, so the change of basis/Fourier transform argument doesn't work in quite the same way that it does for position versus momentum. Hence, I've come to the conclusion that it is better to call the "time-independent Schrödinger equation" as the energy eigenvalue equation.

Switching gears, I was thinking about how the Biot-Savart law is derived. My AP Physics C teacher told me that the Ampère law is derived from the Biot-Savart law. However, this is patently not true, because the Biot-Savart law only works for charges moving at a constant velocity, whereas the Ampère law is true for magnetic fields created by any currents or any changing electric fields. In 8.022 — Physics II, I did see a derivation of the Biot-Savart law from the Ampère law, showing that the latter is indeed more fundamental than the former, but it involved the magnetic potential and a lot more work. I wanted to see if that derivation still made sense to me, but then I realized that because magnetism essentially springs from the combination of electricity and special relativity and because the Biot-Savart law relies on the approximation of the charges moving at a constant velocity, it should be possible to derive the Biot-Savart law from the Coulomb law and special relativity. Indeed, it is possible. Consider a charge $q$ whose electric field is \[ \vec{E} = \frac{q}{r^2} \vec{e}_r \] in its rest frame. Note that the Coulomb law is exact in the rest frame of a charge. Now consider a frame moving with respect to the charge at a velocity $-\vec{v}$, so that observers in the frame see the charge move at a velocity $\vec{v}$. Considering only the component of the magnetic field perpendicular to the relative motion, noting that there is no magnetic field in the rest frame of the charge yields, and considering the low-speed limit (which is the range of validity of the Biot-Savart law) $\left|\frac{\vec{v}}{c}\right| \ll 1$ so that $\gamma \approx 1$ yields $\vec{B} \approx -\frac{\vec{v}}{c} \times \vec{E}$. Plugging in $-\vec{v}$ (the specified velocity of the new frame relative to the charge) for $\vec{v}$ (the general expression for the relative velocity) and plugging in the Coulomb expression for $\vec{E}$ yields the Biot-Savart law \[ \vec{B} = \frac{q\vec{v} \times \vec{e}_r}{cr^2}. \] One thing to be emphasized again is that the Coulomb law is exact in the rest frame of the charge, while the Biot-Savart law is always an approximation because a moving charge will have an electric field that deviates from the Coulomb expression; the fact that the Biot-Savart law is a low-speed inertial approximation is why I feel comfortable doing the derivation this way.

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